Parts of speech

From A+ Club Lesson Planner & Study Guide

Parts of Speech

  • "part" = portion or role
  • "speech" = verbal communication
  • "Parts of Speech" = the fundamental portions and roles of words
    • adjectives, adverbs, nouns, verbs, etc.
  • By isolating and identifying a word's part of speech, we become stronger readers and writers


  • Grammarians (people who study grammar) argue over the number & categories of the Parts of Speech
    • traditionally there are eight categories
    • this list separates Article and Determiner from their traditional categorization as Adjectives
    • we have also added Particle to the list, as a particle operates independently of other Parts of Speech

A note about modifiers

  • modifiers describe or otherwise add information to a sentence core
    • sentence core = Subject + Predicate
      • at a minimum = subject + verb
      • the predicate is the verb + additional modifiers (adjectives, adverbs, prepositional phrases, etc.)
  • modifiers consist of five of the below 11 Parts of Speech
    • adjective, adverb, article, determiner and preposition
  • the other six parts of speech create the sentence core
    • noun + verb = complete sentence
      • or pronoun + verb
    • interjection = complete sentence
    • conjunction = joins sentence parts
    • particle = adds to a verb for additional meaning

Adjective[edit | edit source]

modify nouns[edit | edit source]

  • nouns = things
  • adjectives add additional information to "qualify" or "modify" the noun in order to create a more specific meaning, ex.:
    • "I wore the shoes" v. "I wore the comfortable shoes"
      • the idea changes from "I wore shoes" (in general) to the kind of shoes I wore, i.e, "the comfortable ones"

remain singular[edit | edit source]

  • adjectives do not change to match plural nouns
    • i.e. "the red shoe" >> "the red shoes" and not "the reds shoes"
      • whether or not "shoe" is singular or plural, the adjective remains the same
        • other languages require singular/plural matching, such as "la chaussure rouge" ("the red shoe) v. "las chaussures rouges" (the reds shoes)

general uses of adjectives[edit | edit source]

  • adjectives clarify what kind, what characteristic, what size, which details", etc.
    • what kind: "the regular class"
    • what characteristic: "the difficult class"
    • what size: "the small class"
    • which details: "the rowdy class"
    • note:
      • numbers are not technically adjectives, although they can operate like them
        • "the third class" = a qualification of which class (among others)

nouns and verbs as adjectives[edit | edit source]

  • when a noun or an adverb modify a noun, they are acting like adjectives
    • note that they act like but are not adjectives
    • see "Noun as modifier (attributive)" below
      • ex.: "dog food" = "dog" describes the kind of food, even though "dog" is a noun"
    • see "past participle" under Verbs
      • ex.: "cooked food" = "cooked" describes the kind of food, even though "cook" is a verb

adjectives following subject-verb (linking verb)[edit | edit source]

  • sometimes adjectives stand alone following a verb
    • ex. "Josephus felt sad"
    • here the adjective "sad" is modifying the subject (noun) "Josephus"
    • the adjective is not modifying the verb "felt"
      • if it were, it would an adverb, as in "Josephus felt badly for the hurt boy"
        • "badly" = adverb that modifies the verb "felt
  • verbs that connect an adjective to a subject are called "linking verbs"
    • linking verbs that may be followed by an adjective (and not an object/noun) include:
      • be, feel, taste, smell, sound, sound, look, appear, seem
  • these sentences, therefore do not have objects (nouns)
    • instead, they have a "subject complement" since the adjective "complements" the subject (a noun)
    • note that "I feel sad", "sad" is not describing the action "to feel", it is describing the subject "I"

postpositive adjectives: adjectives that follow nouns[edit | edit source]

  • postpositive adjectives are uncommon but have a couple general uses:
  • modifying "indefinite pronouns"
    • "someone interesting" or "something great" = the adjective follows the indefinite pronoun
    • indefinite pronouns refer to "some" -one, -body or -thing and not to a definite, or specific person or thing (this, that, they, him, you, etc.)
  • postpositive adjective phrases for emphasis or comparison:
    • "The team needs a player better than that"
      • the adjective "better" describes the noun "player" but follows the noun instead of preceding
    • "A dog this big"
  • compound* words in which the noun follows the adjective:
    • "attorney general"
      • "general is an adjective meaning "main" or "principle" (and not the noun meaning military commander)
      • thereby, to pluralize the compound word, the noun is plural but the adjective is not:
        • "attorneys general"
          • *note that "compound words" can be either "open", as in "boy scout" or full moon" or closed, as in "bullfrog" or "mailbox" or hyphenated, as in "long-term" or "on-campus"

Adverb[edit | edit source]

modify verbs[edit | edit source]

  • adverbs provide additional information about an action (verbs), including:
    • how, when, where, degree, or state of an action
    • ex. "He shopped quickly"

modify adjectives[edit | edit source]

  • adverbs can also modify adjectives:
    • in the sense of describing "the state", degree, or situation of the descriptor
    • ex. "the coach was extremely angry"
      • "extremely" describes the extent to which the coach was "angry" (an adjective)
      • therefore, the adverb "extremely" acts upon the adjective "angry" as opposed to the verb "was"

to describe how[edit | edit source]

  • adverbs can answer the "how" of an action (or verb):
    • how: "Soraya studied hard" or "Soraya studied quietly"
      • note that "hard" is also an adjective that describes high density of an object: "the stone is hard"
      • but here it is used to modify the verb in that she studied "strenuously"
  • adverbs never describe a noun
    • ex. "she called the broken phone stupid" = the phone is stupid,
      • v. "she stupidly called the broken phone" = she mistakenly called a broken phone
  • Sources:

to describe when[edit | edit source]

  • are used to express the "when" of an action (verb)
    • ex. "Jocelyn arrived early"
      • note the -ly form of the word "early," which indicates it is an adverb
      • however, if we say, "Jocelyn arrived late", "late" is an adverb the same as "early"
  • "adverbs of time":
    • yesterday, today, "tomorrow
    • these are adverbs because they modify the verb as to when the action occurred

transitional or conjunctive adverb[edit | edit source]

  • = connect actions and ideas
  • also called "transition words"
  • or move a sentence or sentences from one idea to another
    • thus is a conjunction, technically, "conjunctive adverb"
      • however, they do not combine independent clauses
        • i.e., are not equivalent to "but" or any of the seven "coordinating conjunctions" (FANBOYS)
  • transitional adverbs include consequently, furthermore, however, meanwhile, moreover, nevertheless therefore and thus
    • are similar to other "transition words" or "transition phrases" that act as conunctions
  • when used in the middle of a sentence, the transitional adverb is parenthetical
    • ex. "I was hungry, late, and, moreover, broke" (yikes!)
  • sources:

relative adverb[edit | edit source]

  • an adverb that introduces a relative or adjective clause
    • = a clause that modifies or describes another word or sentence part (usually the main clause)
  • generally, relative adverbs indicate location, cause, or reason
  • relative adverbs include, when , where, why
    • Tell me when we get where we're going
    • That's when boys were boys

Article[edit | edit source]

  • indicates a specific or general reference to a noun
    • articles are sometimes listed under the category of "determiner"
  • two types of articles:

definite article (the)[edit | edit source]

  • "the"
    • refers to a specific noun, usually already stated or defined

indefinite article (a & an)[edit | edit source]

  • "a" or "an"
    • refers to a general noun, usually one not already stated or defined
    • note: indefinite articles are not used to refer to a general noun or one that cannot be counted
      • ex. "a water" is incorrect
      • see "count" and "noncount" nouns usage

a v. an[edit | edit source]

Rules for Articles Use w/ Count & Noncount Nouns, Abstract/Generic Nouns, & Nouns with Superlatives
Introducing a noun or unknown Noun Takes the indefinite article (a, an)
  • "A man I met the other day"
  • = who is "man" is not yet known
  • so the indefinite article is used
  • to express that introduction/ unspecific reference
If unknown = no article
Referring to an already known noun Takes the definite article (the)
  • "The man I told you about earlier"
Takes the definite article (the)
  • "The water in the lake is warm!"
Referring to a generic category No article
  • "I love pickles"
  • i.e., "pickles" can be counted
  • but is used here as a category or type of food
no article
  • "Water is good for you"
Abstract noun (figurative, not literal)
  • or an adjective used as a noun
  • to describe a general idea or condition
Definite article (the)
  • "The ghost in the machine"
  • "The decency in her actions"
No article
  • "Ambition can be dangerous"
  • "Friendship is wonderful"
Nouns with Superlative adjectives
  • superlatives express the highest degree
  • therefore superlatives create a singular noun
Definite article (the)
  • "the best coffee", "the highest mountain"
Superlatives always modify singular nouns
  • i.e, "the best" = one not multiple things
Different uses of count, non-count, etc. nouns
  • some nouns can be expressed in all these categories
  • thereby the use or non-use of an article shapes its meaning
"coffee" for example:
  • "The coffee is strong!" (a specific coffee)
  • "I like strong coffee" (coffee in general)
  • "I like a coffee that is strong" (a kind of coffee that I like)
  • a = for use before consonants (hard sounds)
    • "a cow"
    • also used before "u" when the "u" makes a "y" sound
      • "a usable" (a "yoos-able") "a union" (a "yoon-yun") or "a unified" (a "yoo-ni-fied")
        • v. or "an ugly" or "an unsatisfactory"
    • or before "o" when the "o" makes a "w" sound
      • "a one-time" or "a
  • an = for use before words that begin with a vowel or a soft "h":
    • "an owl", "an hour"
    • hard "h" sounds use "a":
      • "a horse", "a historical"

indefinite articles & count, noncount & generic nouns[edit | edit source]

  • if the noun cannot be counted, then it does not take an indefinite article
    • ex.
      • "rain" cannot be counted, so "a rain" is incorrect
        • as opposed to "a rainfall" which can be counted
      • "water" cannot be counted, so "a water" is incorrect
      • however, if referring to "a water" as in "a glass" or "a bottle" of water, which CAN be counted
        • therefore the indefinite article "a" works, as in "may I have a water?"
  • generic categories do not take the indefinite article:
    • when the noun represents a generic or general idea or category, the article is omitted
    • ex. "They went on vacation" as opposed to "they went on a vacation"
    • "The mentor gave him good advice" as opposed to "gave him a good advice"
  • for more on Articles see:

Conjunction[edit | edit source]

  • connect or coordinate ideas, sentences, or thoughts

coordinator[edit | edit source]

  • and, or

>> to do

correlative conjunction[edit | edit source]

  • creates pairs of contrasting verbs and/or ideas
  • include:
    • both, and
    • either, or
    • neither, nor
    • not only, but
    • rather, or

coordinating conjunction[edit | edit source]

  • = combine independent clauses (clauses that can stand as sentences on their own)
  • known as "FANBOYS"
    • for For, And, But, Or, Yet & So
The 7 coordinating conjunctions
Alphab. list FANBOYS list
and F for
but A and
for N nor
or B but
nor O or
so Y yet
yet S so

subordinating conjunction[edit | edit source]

  • = conjunctions that "subordinate" or turn an independent clause into a subordinate clause, i.e., a sentence that cannot stand on its own
  • = create a need for additional information and sets up or adds to the information that follows in the dominant or main clause
    • ex.: "The dog played with his toy every day until it wore out" can be phrased using a subordinating conjunction, as per:
    • "Until it wore out, the dog played with his toy every day."
      • "Until it wore out" is not a complete sentence or thought
  • subordinating conjunctions are sometimes referred to as SWABI for
    • Since, When, After, Because & If
Subordinating conjunctions (SWABI)
after although as as if as long as
as much as as soon as as though because before
even even if even though if if only
if then if when inasmuch just as lest
now now that now when once provided
provided that rather than since so that supposing
than that though till unless
until when whenever where whereas
where if wherever whether which while
who whoever why
  • note that when the subordinating conjunction follows the independent clause, it acts like a requisite relative conjunction
    • I don't go to school whenever it snows
  • see

conjunctive adverbs[edit | edit source]

  • also called "linking adverbs"
  • referred to as THAMOs
    • >>
  • create or indicate a relationship between two thoughts
    • "complete thoughts" = independent clauses
    • "thoughts" = predicate, i.e., as created by the verb and its complements (things that follow the verb)

other types of conjunctions[edit | edit source]

Determiner[edit | edit source]

  • introduces a noun or indicates an amount, specificity, or generality of a noun
    • determiners are traditionally considered adjectives, as they modify nouns
    • however, here we are considering "determiner" as a unique category
      • but also "article" as a unique category unto itself, even though it is considered a type of determiner
  • determiner categories:

demonstrative[edit | edit source]

  • this, that, these, those
    • note that "which" and "that" are pronouns that may act like a determiner ("that car which goes faster")

numeral[edit | edit source]

  • zero, one, two, three... (numbers)
  • first, single, once, dozen
    • note that numerals are distinct from quantifiers

quantifier[edit | edit source]

  • a few, a little, all, another, any, both, each, enough, every, few, half, many, more, none, several, some, such
    • enough= indicates "sufficiency"
    • a few, some, more, etc = indicate "degree"

possessive[edit | edit source]

  • hers, his, my, our, theirs, whose, your
    • note that these possessive indicators are actually pronouns, but they are considered "determiners" in that they are used to specify ownership of something\

See for more on determiners:

Interjection[edit | edit source]

  • words use for aside remarks or interruptions

exclamation[edit | edit source]

    • expresses a spontaneous reaction or emotion
  • "no!, okay, damn!, heh!, etc.

spoken pause[edit | edit source]

  • some interjections are classified as a particle (see below) because they do not carry specific meaning
    • such as "now" and "well" when used in a sentence as an interjection or pause:
      • "Now, now, settled down" or "Well, let's get going."

Yes, no affirmation/negation[edit | edit source]

  • "Yes" and "No" may be classified as interjections
    • since in a sentence, they carry meaning, thus should not be considered particles
    • ex. "Yes, you may go now" "Yes" carries a specific meaning

Noun[edit | edit source]

  • persons, places, things
  • proper nouns

subject[edit | edit source]

  • subjects of a sentence are always nouns
  • the subject is the person, place or thing that does the action (which is expressed by a verb)
  • note: the word "subjective" means "from one's point of view," thus, like the subject of a sentence, subject is doing the action
    • (i.e., from the "subjective point of view

object[edit | edit source]

  • note: the word "objective" means "from a general point of view," thus, like the object of a sentence the object is not the actor
    • (i.e., from the "objective point of view")
  • objects of verbs only follow action verbs (something has to happen)
  • direct object
    • = the object that is the "direct" recipient of the action (verb)
      • ex. "I ate the donut"
  • indirect object
    • = the object that is an "indirect" recipient of the action (verb)
      • ex. "I gave the donut to the boy"
        • the verb gave requires the direct object "the donut"
        • but it also has a recipient of the action, thus "to the boy"
    • indirect object answers ''who? what? to whom? for what?''

lists of subjects & objects[edit | edit source]

  • sentences may have multiple subjects and objects (and verbs)
  • ex. "The man, his son and his daughter looked around, compared, and bought new shoes, shirts and hats."
    • secondary verbs may follow the objects of prior verbs, as in:
      • ""The man, his son and his daughter looked around the isles, compared prices, and bought new shoes, shirts and hats."

consecutive nouns[edit | edit source]

  • nouns can be next to one another in a sentence
  • if so, they may represent either:
    • indirect + direct objects ("She told her father the truth")
    • attributive nouns (the first noun acting as an adjective: "dog food")
      • also called "adjunct" or "apposite" noun
    • a list of nouns, however, these will be separated by commas ("dogs, cats, and horses")
    • possessive nouns (one noun possesses another: "the dog's bone" or "his book")
    • appositive phrase (used to add information, usually parenthetically: "Bob, the local handy man, fixed my lawn mower"
      • note that 'lawn mower = attributive noun phrase with "lawn" acting as an adjective

consecutive nouns as direct and indirect objects[edit | edit source]

  • consecutive nouns can act as multiple objects of a verb
    • i.e., two nouns next to one another
    • as in "I gave the boy a donut"
  • when the action has a direct and indirect object, the indirect object is often preceded by "to" in order to indicate the direct object
    • however, we frequently drop the "to", which remains implied in the sentence
      • so instead of "I gave a donut to the boy" we simply say, "I gave the boy a donut"
    • another ex. "She gave the man grief"
      • can also be expressed as "She gave grief to the man"
      • the noun "grief" is what was given (direct object) and the noun "man" is to whom the grief was given (indirect object)

Click expand for an example of multiple nouns as objects from CB Writing practice test 10, question 36:

Tuition-reimbursement programs signal that employers offer their [36] [workers’ opportunities] for personal and professional development.

A) worker's opportunities [NO CHANGE]
B) workers opportunities’
C) workers opportunities
D) worker’s opportunity’s
  • elimination
    • x A) the possessive "worker's" confuses the direct object "opportunities" with the indirect object "workers"; in other words, "employers" don't offer "workers" they offer "opportunities"
    • x B) and x D) the noun "opportunities" cannot possess the preposition "for"
  • Correct answer C) = SUBJECT: employers VERB: offer INDIRECT OBJECT: workers DIRECT OBJECT: opportunities

consecutive noun as modifier (attributive noun)[edit | edit source]

  • one type of consecutive nouns may be a noun acting as a modifier, as if an adjective (but not one)
  • such nouns are called "attributive" nouns
    • also called "adjunct" (supporting of) nouns or "apposite" (related to)
  • attributive nouns modify or qualify another noun
    • modify = change or add to the meaning of
    • qualify = limit the meaning of
    • attributive = provides an "attribute" or characteristic or quality to the other noun
  • ex.: "dog food"
    • i.e.: "dog food" = "a type of food that is for dogs"
    • "dog" thereby indicates an attribute, or type or characteristic, of "food"
  • example of multiple objects + a attributive nouns:
    • "The pitcher threw the batter a hardball pitch"
    • S: pitcher V: threw IO: catcher ADJ: hardball (appositive noun) DO: pitch
      • could also be expressed as: "the pitcher threw a (hardball) pitch to the catcher"
        • "hardball" = a noun, but here it is describing the direct object "pitch"
        • thus "hardball" is acting like an adjective
  • the attributive noun is (almost) always singular
    • = because it is acting like an adjective, which always remains in the singular form ("red shoes" as opposed to "reds shoes")
    • = as a category or type, the noun must remain singular
    • exception for plural attributive nouns = special words such as "arms race" or "rewards card"
    • possessive attributive noun:
      • ex.: "the National's game"
      • these are often morphed into plural attributive, thus "National's game" becomes "Nationals game", "reward's card" becomes "rewards card", or "lady's night" becomes "ladies night"
    • multiple attributives
      • ex.: "beef dog food" or "
      • news headlines often use multiple attributives, such as "South Park man Kenneth "Kenny" McCormick dies again"
  • strict grammatical terms does now apply the "attributive" label for "adjective homograph" nouns (such as "iron" or "paper") or "compounds" or "open compounds"
  • attributive nouns are not adjectives
    • the only syntactic form of an adjective that the attributive noun employs is the "prepositive" position
      • i.e., preceding the noun it modifies
        • big dog, small house
    • attributive nouns cannot operate as post-positive adjectives (following the noun):
      • whereas an adjective can be a subject complement:
        • boring meeting >> the meeting is boring
      • dog food >> food dog or business meeting >> meeting business << don't work
    • attributive nouns cannot operate as subject complements (as do adjectives)
      • the food is dog or the meeting is business << don't work
    • attributive nouns cannot take on a comparative form (as do adjectives)
      • whereas nouns can go from big to bigger
        • big test >> bigger test
      • attributive nouns cannot: businesser meeting << doesn't work
  • see also additional entry on
    • "appositive phrase"
    • compound noun
    • noun adjunct
  • see:

Appositive nouns & phrases[edit | edit source]

  • = a noun that is next to another noun to add information to or to explain it
    • may be intermixed with modifiers (adjectives, prepositions)
    • distinct from an attributive noun in that the appositive noun clarifies but is not acting as an adjective
    • ex. "my friend Steve"
      • "my", "friend," and "Steve" are all nouns
      • "Steve" is the appositive noun that identifies who the "friend" is
      • "my friend Steve" is the appositive phrase
  • appositive phrases may provide parenthetical information
    • "Joe Blow, a rather common fellow, is uncommonly wise"
      • the appositive phrase "a rather common fellow" adds information to the subject, "Joe Blow"
      • note that this appositive phrase contains an adjective, "common"
  • appositive phrases are frequently used to provide a title or identifying profession or position
    • "Sanjay Patar, the famed tennis player, retired last year"
  • appositive phrases are not always set aside by commas:
    • "The popular state legislator Joellin Jones was reelected"

possessive nouns[edit | edit source]

  • nouns may possess (or own) one another
    • ex. "Jake's house"
    • possession is indicated by the "apostrophe"
      • other languages express it as "the house of Jake"
      • English indicates the "genitive" case, which in Latin marks possession\
    • singular v. plural possession
  • to indicate possession:
    • singular nouns add 's (apostrophe + s) << "the horse's saddle"
    • plural nouns add s' (s + apostrophe) << "the horses' field"
    • if a singular noun already ends with an s, possession is indicated by adding either an apostrophe + s ('s) or just the apostrophe (')
      • ex. "Jesus's sermon"
      • or "Jesus' sermon"
        • either form is correct
    • see
  • possessions v. contractions ending in -s
    • pronoun contraction using apostrophes + s
      • it's = the contraction for "it is"
      • he's or she's = contractions for "he is" and "she is"
        • the possession forms are "his" and "hers"
      • "who's" = "who is"
        • the possessive form = "whose"
      • other contractions such as that's, when's, how's, etc. express possession with the verb "have," as in "that has", "when has" or "how has"
  • to do: add about other apostrophe uses, such as '49, 'nuff said

plurality, count distinction & generality[edit | edit source]

  • plurality = noun shifts from singuar to plural, usually marked by the suffix "-s"
    • i.e., a dog, two dogs
  • "count distinction" is sometimes called "the grammar of counting"
  • regards singular v. plural nouns and distinctions between plural nouns of things than can be individually counted or not
    • generally marked by the suffix "s" for plural
  • "count distinction" and determiners
    • generally the "count distinction" is between objects and substances
      • objects can be counted and differentiated (one of that object can be isolated from another of that object group)
      • substances that have no set distinction and therefore cannot be counted
    • plural nouns that can be counted use the determiner "many"
      • as in "many people" << the number of people can be counted
      • plural nouns that can NOT be counted use the determiner "much"
        • as in "much water" << one cannot count "water", although "much" indicates a large amount of water

Particle[edit | edit source]

  • a word that has little or no specific meaning and that is used to emphasize or assist another word, usually a verb
    • if the particle is removed from the sentence or phrase, it generally means the same thing
      • (except for infinitive particles, which create an infinitive)
  • particles do not change with inflection (word endings for case, gender, number)
  • sometimes called a "function word"
    • because it doesn't have a specific meaning unto itself
  • note: as with Determiners, Particles are frequently not included in lists of Parts of Speech
    • however, since the function of a particle is Particular, we are placing it here as a distinct Part of Speech

adverbial particles[edit | edit source]

  • typically, particles are prepositions that do not accompany a noun
    • instead, they follow a verb to indicate a direction, topic, or other prepositional purpose for the verb
    • particles: away, down, in, off, up, etc. as in:
      • "get away, wake up, knock out, look up, sit down
      • these examples are, together, phrasal verbs
    • particle + preposition
      • particles frequently are followed by a prepositional phrase, in which the particle (a preposition) is next to a preposition
        • keep up with the pack, put up with her stubbornness, look forward to leaving

discourse particle[edit | edit source]

  • a word that acts as a verbal marker that doesn't have specific meaning
    • tends to be informal, or oral and not written
    • Now, my friend, let us talk
    • Well, now, what are we to do about this?

infinitive particle[edit | edit source]

  • "to" is a preposition as well as an "infinitive marker"
  • i.e., it creates the infinitive form of a verb, to be, to love, to talk
    • it's more common to simply describe this combination of particle + verb as an "infinitive"

negative particle[edit | edit source]

  • not = indicates the opposite or negation
    • "I will not get up today"
      • note that both "no" and "up" are particles

Preposition[edit | edit source]

  • creates a prepositional phrase, which:
    • express relationship in time, place, or sequence
    • adds information to a sentence
    • relate to other word forms to one another, including nouns (usually), adjectives, and verbs
  • list of prepositions:

about, above, according to, across, after, against, along, among, around, at, before, behind, below, beneath, beside, between, by, down, during, except, for, from, in, in front of, inside, instead of, into, like, near, of, off, on, onto, out of, outside, over, past, since, through, to, toward, under, underneath, until, up, upon, with, within, without

  • compound prepositions:
    • ahead of, apart from, by means of, due to, from above (etc.) , in excess of, in front of, in regard to, prior to, similar to, with reference to, etc.

categories of prepositions[edit | edit source]

Some types or categories of prepositions
Prepositions of... Relationship Prepositions Examples
time or sequence when, how long at, after, amid, before. between, during, from, since, throughout, until at the time, during the game
place or location contained or touching aboard, across, amidst, among, at, in, on, inside, upon, within across the sinside the box,
higher or lower not touching above, below, beneath, over, under, underneath, up above the house, under the bed
other proximity not touching across, along, alongside, behind, between, near, nearby, opposite across the street, near the office
not near before, beyond, over, past,
direction or movement along, at, between, for, into, onto
manner or way by, except, for, in, like, on, with, via
relationship or purpose for, in relation to, like, regarding, with, without for learning, without laughing
accompaniment, together, in conjunction common or coordinated activity or purpose with,
ownership owned, created by, of
origin source from, of
focus of attention or topic about, regarding, to He apologized to her
Preposition comparisons per category & use
about place near, within about there, moving about
about ideas, emotions subject of, related to concerned about, complained about, argue about
with state or condition agreement, engagement argue with, agree with
with things accompanying, together going with, deal with, business is concerned with insurance

List of prepositions[edit | edit source]

Quick list of (single word) prepositions
across after among
before behind beneath
by down during
from in into
like next near
of off on
over past since
throughout to toward/s
under until up
upon with within/out
Quick list of combined words that act as a single-word preposition
according to as of ahead of
aside from at the risk of by means of
except for in addition to in case of
next to on top of up against

Select preposition definitions & use[edit | edit source]

Select preposition definitions and examples
Preposition Expresses Example Notes
to "to" can also be a "particle" or "infinitive marker"
  • creates an infinitive: "to go"
  • so not to be confused with a preposition
up heading above or upwards He crept up the stairs "up" can also be an adjective, adverb, noun or particle.
  • * adjective, so when we say, "the sky is up" or "the system is up and running" it is not a preposition
  • adverb: "She picked it up"
  • noun: "What's up?"
  • particle: "I looked it up," "The DJ turned up the music"
with accompanying, alongside, together Stevie went with Joey to class

Coffeecake goes with coffee

connected The sofa & chair are with each other
agreement I agree with you (also "I am with you")
method I fixed my phone with duct tape
note: see 1/13/23 Blair class

prepositional phrase[edit | edit source]

  • = a phrase created by a preposition + its object
    • (a phrase = two or more words that do not contain a subject + verb)
  • ex.: the book is on the table
    • "on" = preposition
    • "table" = object of the preposition, "on"
    • "on the table" = prepositional phrase

prepositional phrases & verb types[edit | edit source]

  • transitive verb = must be accompanied by an object
    • the preposition will not be the direct object
      • I give a bone to the dog
  • intransitive verb = does not take an object
    • the preposition will act as an adverb (modifier) of the intransitive verb:
      • He waits for the bus
        • the prepositional phrase doesn't match the subject; instead if modifies the verb "waits"
  • linking verb = does not need an object
    • linking verbs include is, become, seem, smell, etc.
      • they do not take an adverb
        • i.e., "You seem happily" makes no sense
        • instead, "You seem happy"
          • "happy" = subject complement adjective
      • linking verbs "link" to a noun or adjective
        • "I feel happy" or "He is a doctor"
    • as a modifier the prepositional phrase adds additional information to the subject complement noun
      • I feel happy about my test
      • He is a doctor in Nebraska

prepositional phrase as modifier[edit | edit source]

  • prepositional phrases act like adjectives or adverbs to modify nouns or verbs
    • therefore, they are not separated from the word they modify by punctuation
    • ex. The player ran onto the field
      • as opposed to The player, ran onto the field
        • = incorrect comma that separates the verb "ran" from the prepositional phrase "onto the field"

modify a noun (as an adjective)[edit | edit source]

  • The best books in the library are in the adventure section
    • note that there is no punctuation separating "books" from the modifying prepositional phrase, "in the library"
    • also called an "adjective phrase" or "adjective prepositional phrase

modify a verb (as an adverb):[edit | edit source]

  • He stepped onto the porch
    • "onto the porch" describes how "he stepped"
    • so the prepositional phrase acts like an adverb
    • sometimes called an "adverbial phrase"

as introductory phrase[edit | edit source]

  • prepositional phrases are commonly used to introduce information about the clause that follows
    • ex. On Tuesdays, I have night classes

as noun phrase[edit | edit source]

"overlapping" grammatical roles for prepositions[edit | edit source]

  • some words and grammar forms "overlap" or operate in or as multiple grammatical forms
preposition as subordinating conjunction[edit | edit source]
  • = a "conjunctive preposition"
  • which is also a "subordinating conjunction"
    • compare: I got my license before last year
      • before= preposition that defines when "I went to school"
    • to: I got my license before last year ended
      • before = combines "I got my license" and "last year ended" and defines which came first
    • so we can view "before" as subordinating the clause, "last year ended,"
      • it is a clause because it contains a subject (year) and verb ("ended)
      • and the preposition "before" "subordinates
      • however, since "before" is defining the "when," which is a core function of a preposition, we can call it one, or call it a "conjunctive preposition" when also acting as a #subordinating conjunction.
    • more examples:
      • She paid the bill after dinnervs:
        • She paid the bill after she ate dinner
      • He played like a provs.
        • He played like he was a pro

"intransitive preposition"[edit | edit source]

  • = prepositions may or may not define a "noun phrase" (which prepositions would normally accompany)
  • intransitive prepositions do not need a noun or noun phrase
  • i.e., they act as adverb modifiers or subject complements
  • most dictionaries qualify intransitive prepositions as adverbs, such as "abroad," "now," "until"
    • ex. of intransitive preposition: They went ahead or The dog is outside
    • with a noun these would be more clearly prepositions:
      • They went ahead of the others or The dog is outside the fence

Preposition as "particle" (w/o object complement)[edit | edit source]

  • particles are words that don't fit into the general categories of parts of speech
    • the most common are prepositions that do not have an object
  • prepositions as "particles" generally add information to a verb
    • ex. "wake up", "stand around", "back down"
    • in these examples, the preposition does not have an object
      • and it modifies the verb
      • thereby it acts as either an adverb or an actual verb part
        • as a verb part, we can see that "to wake" has a different meaning that "to wake up"

Pronoun[edit | edit source]

  • "pro" = for; "noun"
  • pronouns refer to a noun in order to avoid repetition of the noun
    • ex., "The horse likes to eat oats. It then likes to sleep." as opposed to "The horse likes to eat oats. The horse likes to sleep."
  • pronoun forms include:

pronoun antecedents or precedents to nouns or ideas[edit | edit source]

  • pronouns reference a previously or sometimes later stated noun or idea
    • pronoun antecedent (noun comes before the pronoun) to a previously stated noun:
      • "The sky is entirely blue. It's a pretty color."
    • pronoun antecedent to a previously stated idea:
      • "The sky is entirely blue. It makes me happy."
    • pronoun precedent (pronoun comes before the noun) to a subsequently stated noun (uncommon):
      • "It went well, but the test was still hard."

pronouns than can also be a determiner or a conjunction[edit | edit source]

  • pronouns can also be determiners, subordinating conjunctions or relative pronouns that act distinctly
    • "that" can be:
      • "That is the question!" << "that" = pronoun/ subject of the sentence
      • "That point is irrelevant" << "that"= adjective / determiner (specifies "point")
      • "The point that is irrelevant is not the question" << "that" = relative pronoun/subject of the relative clause ("that is irrelevant")
    • "any" can be:
      • "Any difficulty is to be ignored." << "any" = determiner / adjective
        • note that the subject is "difficulty" and not "any"
      • "Any of you guys want candy?" << "any" = pronoun / subject
        • "of you guys" = prepositional phrase, which is never the subject of a sentence
        • "any" can act as a singular or plural pronoun
          • "Any is better than none"
          • "Any of them are crazy"

click EXPAND for example of "any" as a determiner and not subject pronoun on CB practice test 9, question 35:

						Any New
York City construction project using municipal funds
[35] ____  required to consider whether historical artifacts
will be affected during construction... 

A) are
B) have been
C) is
D) were

  • the subject of the clause is "project" and not "any" or "funds"
    • therefore, the subject-verb agreement is "project is" (third person singular conjugation "is")
  • A) are is designed to fool the student into match "any" or "funds" as plural (conjugating as "are")
    • here, "any" is a determiner/adjective that modifies "project"
      • thus, "any", "New York City," and "construction" are all adjective modifiers
        • any = determiner(adjective) that describes "project"
        • New York City = attributive noun that describes "project"
        • construction = attributive that describes "project"
    • here, "funds" is an object of the present participle adjective "using" (verb acting like an adjective)
      • thus, "using" and "funds" are a modifying phrase to describe "project"

pronouns in comparisons[edit | edit source]

Verb[edit | edit source]

  • express action or a state of being (a condition)
  • verb forms:
    • verbs, or an action of a subject, can be expressed by a single verb or by a phrase, or multiple words, that expresses an action
    • verb phrases are known as "predicates"
    • technically = "predicate"

finite v. non-finite verb[edit | edit source]

  • finite verb = action verb
    • action verb has a subject
      • ex. "Joey hates golf"
        • "hates" has the subject "Joey" and expresses an action
  • non-finite verb = has no subject
    • ex. "playing golf is fun"
    • non-finite verbs are also called "verbals"
  • finite verb = directly expresses an action
  • non-finite verb = does not directly express an action
    • "Joey hates playing golf"
      • Joey = subject
      • hates = action verb
      • playing = a noun
        • = not a verb as it is not a direct action and has no subject
        • however, note that "golf" is the object of the non-finite verb "playing"
        • finite and non-finite verbs may have objects
          • object = recipient of the finite verb's action or the non-finite verb's expression of an action

verb "moods"[edit | edit source]

  • "grammatical moods" = a feature of verbs whereby the speaker "inflects" or expresses an idea by modifying tone and emphasis for a specific meaning
  • there are four general grammatical moods for verbs:

indicative mood[edit | edit source]

  • a statement of fact
  • often in the form of a "declarative" sentence
    • ex. "I am hungry!"
      • the speaker emphasizes "I" and "am"

imperative mood[edit | edit source]

  • a command or advice
    • ex. "You should really get to work"
    • the speaker will emphasize the adverb and object

subjunctive mood[edit | edit source]

  • verb that joins ideas across tenses
    • to express emotion, possibility, condition or opinion
      • emotion = wanting something
        • ex. "I wish I were less stressed over grammar"
      • possibility = something that has not happened"
        • ex. "Once we get this done..."
      • condition = one thing required for another
        • "If you study hard, you might pass"
      • opinion = indicates the speaker's thought or attitude
        • "He thinks that you should go"

optative mood[edit | edit source]

transitive and intransitive verbs[edit | edit source]

  • indicates if an action (verb) is expressed with or without a direct object
    • transitive verbs or transitive verb forms act upon a direct object:
      • ex. "The soccer player kicked the ball hard"
    • intransitive verbs or intransitive verb forms do not have a direct object
      • ex. "The soccer player played hard" (a direct object is not required for the sentence to make sense
      • intransitive verbs cannot be used in the passive voice
        • ex., "The dog barked" is a complete sentence and "barked" does not require a direct object
        • however, we cannot say, "the dog was barked"
  • why does transitive/intransitive verb usage matter?
    • a common error is to attach a preposition to a transitive verb:
      • since they have direct objects, a transitive verb cannot be separated from its object, ex.:
        • incorrect: "That professor teaches about Biology"
        • correct: "That professor teaches Biology" (the direct object is not separated from the verb)
        • other incorrect examples:
          • "She told about her trip." v. "She told us about her trip."
          • "His dad bought" = incomplete thought bc "bought" requires an object:
            • "His dad bought a boat"

present tense forms[edit | edit source]

  • simple present
    • denotes a single action that is repeated, always happens, or the present condition of something
    • examples
      • repeated action: "I eat lunch at noon."
      • action that always (or, in the negative, never) happens: "I can't speak Latin"
    • denotes the condition or state of something: "The car is clean" or "I feel great!"
    • simple present form is also considered as a "base" verb form
  • present progressive
    • = -ing form for a verb to express an ongoing action
      • used with "to be" conjugations ("am" "is", etc.) the -ing verb form denotes an ongoing action
      • ex. "She is dancing"
      • see participle for the -ing form of a verb that acts as an adjective or a noun (called a gerund)
    • note that present progressive verb forms are frequently used to combine sentences or independent clauses
    • click EXPAND to see examples of present progressive verbs used to combine independent clauses
  • ex. "I went to see the sequel, and I hoped it would be as good as the first
  • the two independent clauses (complete sentences) can be combined by converting the "I hoped" to the present progressive form, "hoping"
  • "I went to see the sequel, hoping it would as good as the first"
  • note that "hoping" renders the second clause dependent (not a complete sentence or thought), thus employing only a comma and not a comma + conjunction
  • present progressive verbs subordinate clauses:
    • "Hoping it would be as good as the first" is not a complete sentence or thought
      • thus it is a dependent or subordinate clause
  • see also:
  • present perfect
    • indicates an action that happened at one point or that just happened and that consequences on the present
    • usually uses the "has" or "have" forms of a verb
      • "Yes, I have eaten dinner already"
      • "I have played soccer since I was five"
      • "I haven't seen her in years"

past tense forms[edit | edit source]

  • past simple
    • an action that happened in the past
    • click EXPAND for past simple examples:
      • "I ate before they showed up"
      • "I played soccer yesterday"
      • "I lived in Brazil"
  • past progressive
    • actions that were ongoing at some point in the past or that were repeated in the past
    • uses the -ing form of a verb
  • * click Expand for past progressive examples:
past progressive examples:
      • "I was eating when they showed up"
      • "I was playing soccer all last year"
      • "I was living in Brazil"
  • past perfect
  • an action that happened before something else happened (both in the past)
  • uses "had" to show the earlier event
    • and compares it to another even with "before", "because" or "by the time", etc.
  • click Expand for past perfect examples:
    • "I had already eaten when they showed up"
    • "I had played soccer long before I learned rugby"
    • "Because I had lived in Brazil, I already knew some Spanish"

future tense forms[edit | edit source]

  • future simple
    • an action that will take place in the future, usually with "will"
  • click Expand for future simple examples:
      • "I will eat after they show up"
      • I will play soccer tomorrow"
      • I will live in Brazil next year"
    • future simple also indicates a promise to do something in the future
      • "I will play harder next time"
  • future progressive
    • an action that will be ongoing in the future, usually with "will" and "-ing"
  • click Expand for future progressive examples:
      • "I will be eating with them when they show up"
      • "I will be playing soccer again after my ankle heals"
      • "I will be living in Brazil all next year"
  • future perfect
    • an action that will happen before something else, usually with "will have"
    • future perfect combines the future "will" with a past tense verb form
    • future perfect also indicates an ongoing future state or condition
  • click Expand for future perfect examples:
  • "I will have eaten before they show up"
  • "I will have played much better by the time we got to the playoffs"
  • "I will have lived in Brazil by the end of next summer"
    • or
  • "If they show up late, I will have been eating already."
  • "By next year, I will have played soccer for 12 years"
  • "I will have lived in Brazil a full year as of next week"
  • future perfect progressive
    • an action that will be going on until something else happens
    • uses the "will have been" and -ing form of the verb
  • click Expand for future perfect progressive examples:
  • "I will have been eating by the time they show up"
  • "By the end of the season, I will have been playing better"
  • "By next week, I will have been living in Brazil a full year"

non-finite verb: participle, gerund & infinitive[edit | edit source]

  • non-finite verbs
    • = verbs that do not have a subject
    • and thus do not act as an action or "finite" verb (that has a subject)
    • = verbs that act as adjectives, adverbs, or nouns
    • non-finite verbs are also called "verbals"
  • verb forms that act like an adjective, adverb or noun
  • types:
  • participles
    • present participle:
      • verb form using -ing that can also act as an adjective or an adverb
    • past participle:
      • past tense verb form that can also act as an adjective or an adverb
    • gerund
      • present participle verb form (using -ing) that acts as a noun
  • participle verb forms that modify a noun are also called "attributive verbs"
    • "attributive" in the sense of indicating a characteristic or description (an attribute)
    • are the same thing as "present participle adjective" and "past participle adjective"

using gerunds and participles as nouns or adjectives[edit | edit source]

  • the reason we use gerunds and participles is to express either the state of an action as a noun ("swimming") or, as an adjective, what an action does/did to a noun ("boiled water")
  • gerunds and participles allow for simpler expression of those ideas than if they were expressed as subject-verbs
  • participles may act as subordinating conjunction:
    • such as "Scrambling up the hill, he barely made it to the top."
      • "Scrambling up the hill" is not a complete thought or sentence, so it is subordinate to the main clause, "he barely made it to the top.
    • as opposed to "He scrambled up the hill, and he barely made it to the top"
    • or
      • "He scrambled up the hill and barely made it to the top"
      • "He scrambled up the hill, barely making it to the top"
    • each sentence form expresses a different emphasis
  • -ing forms as adverbs may concisely express a "relative clause" (a sentence part that is related to it)

present participle[edit | edit source]

  • uses the -ing form of a verb as an adjective or an adverb
    • present participles describe nouns, noun phrases, or verbs (actions)
  • present participles as adjectives:
    • "The boiling water is hot" (describes the water)
    • "This trip is exciting" (modifies or describes the trip)
    • "The directions are confusing" (modifies the directions)
  • present participles as adverbs:
    • note: here grammar becomes debatable: this form of a particle can be seen as an adverb or a gerund (noun):
    • Smiling, she went about her work" (modifies how she "went about her work")
    • or "She went about her work smiling"

past participle[edit | edit source]

  • verbs in the past tense used as an adjective
    • = the simple past tense of a verb is used to show a condition of something
    • typically are -ed -en and -t forms
    • includes irregular verbs in the past tense, such as "to be" "to go" etc.
  • ex:
    • "Boiled water is sanitized" ("boiled" and "sanitized" describe the noun, water)
    • "The glass was broken when I found it" ("was broken" describes the noun, glass)
    • "The cut flowers are pretty" ("cut modifies the noun, flowers)
  • participles as dangling modifiers

participial phrases are often the source of "dangling modifiers"[edit | edit source]

  • = adjectives or adjective phrases that are not clear as to what they modify, ex:
    • "Smiling happily, she won the choral competition"
      • = unclear if she won the competition because she was "smiling happily" or she was "smiling happily" when she won the tournament

participle as adverb[edit | edit source]

  • present participles may themselves be modified by an adverb
    • ex.: ** or "She went about her work smiling enormously"

gerund[edit | edit source]

  • = verbs that act as nouns
  • use the -ing form of the verb
  • ex:
    • "to swim" + -ing = "swimming" = a noun for the act of swimming
    • "Swimming is fun"
    • "Boiling the water sanitizes it" ("boiling" is an act, therefore a noun, from the verb "to boil")
  • gerunds are used as objects of verbs, ex:
    • "The student hesitated raising her hand"
  • Note: gerunds are often interchangeable with infinitives
    • "The student hesitated raising her hand" vs "The student hesitated to raise her hand", or:
    • "I hate doing math" vs "I hate to do math"
    • however, note that gerunds and infinitives may act differently in terms of the object of the sentence:
  • gerunds are used with prepositions, ex:
    • "Before leaving, he turned off the lights" << "before" is a preposition
    • "Joanna stepped carefully after dropping the glass" <<"after" = preposition
  • click on EXPAND for how gerunds and infinitives change the meaning of a sentence using College Board Writing practice test 6 question 21:

"Burland advocated using soil extraction:"

    • "Burland advocated using..." = he advocates for the use of soil extraction (he advocates the the object)
  • B) advocated to use
    • "Burland advocated to use..." = he advocates "to use" (he advocates the action)
  • A) NO CHANGE is correct because it is the object of the sentence, "soil extraction," that Burland advocates, not the action of its use (to use")

telling the difference between a gerund & a participle[edit | edit source]

  • since participles act as adjectives, they are not essential to make a complete sentence or thought
  • since gerunds act as nouns, they are essential to make a complete sentence or thought (as a subject or object or other noun form)
  • to test whether verb is acting as a gerund or participle:
    • remove it from the sentence and see if the sentence still makes sense:
      • "Scrambling, he made it to the top of the hill"\
        • "Scrambling, he made it to the top of the hill"
        • since the sentence is complete without "scrambling", it is a present participle adjective
      • "Farming knowledge is helpful"
        • "Farming knowledge is helpful"
          • since "farming" is not necessary to the sentence, it is an adjective
      • "Scrambling is not the best way to get up the hill"
        • "Scrambling is not the best way to get up the hill"
          • since the sentence is incomplete without "scrambling", it is a present participle adjective
      • "Knowing about farming is helpful"
        • "Knowing about farming is helpful"
          • "Knowing about farming is helpful"
            • since the preposition "about" requires an object (noun), "farming" is a gerund
    • see from:

infinitive[edit | edit source]

  • = a non-finite verbs
  • infinitives use the particle "to"
    • ex. "I go to see the game"
  • "infinitive" comes from Latin for "indefinite" or "unrestricted"
    • bc in Latin restrictive verbs must match noun case or plurality
      • i.e., they have a subject (and match to it)
    • so the infinitive is "indefinite" or "unrestricted"
      • since it not attached to another noun (subject)
      • and thus it does not match case or plurality
  • root forms or "bare infinitives" act like infinitives but without the "to"
  • infinitives act as adjectives, adverbs or nouns
    • as adjective
      • The place to go is the theatre
        • "to go" is an adjective that describes "place"
    • as adverb
      • I get to go there tomorrow
        • "to go" is an adverb that modifies the verb "get"
    • as noun
      • I learned how to build it
        • "to build" is the noun object of the verb "learned"

Resources[edit | edit source]

subjunctive mood[edit | edit source]

  • expresses a hypothetical, possible or desirable scenario
    • emphasizes importance, emergency or possibility
    • called "mood" because it often expresses an emotion, suggestions, desire, or demand
  • note that the hypothetical is often expressed using a modal verb instead of the subjunctive
    • should, would, ought, etc.
  • hypothetical subjunctive:
    • pairs verbs of opposing tenses by creating a hypothetical (not actual) scenario, usually starting with "if"
    • ex.: "If I had studied harder, I would have done better on the test."
      • "if" creates the hypothetical
      • "had studied" = past perfect (an action that happened at one time)
      • "would have studied" = conditional perfect tense (also "past tense modal")
        • "would" = past tense of "will" thereby represents an imaginary action from the past
  • suggestion, demand or command subjunctive:
    • ex. "I recommend that you talk to your teacher"
      • "I recommend" = a command or suggestion
      • "that you talk" = present tense subjunctive
  • subjunctive and the "that clause"
    • "that" introduces the possibility
      • "It is important that..."
      • "They requested that..."
      • "She insisted that..."
    • the relative pronoun "that" can be omitted in the subjunctive mood:
      • "I recommend you talk to your teacher"
      • = same as "I recommend that you talk to your teacher"
  • subjunctive and "not"
    • "I recommend that you not talk to your teacher"
  • subjunctive and "whether", "need be", "may be", "come what may"
    • all express possibility
    • ex.
      • "Whether I am well, I will take the test"
      • "I will get it done come what may"
      • "It need not be that way"
  • see

verb conjugations[edit | edit source]

  • students of Latin, Spanish or French verb conjugations while not learning about them in English
  • English has conjugations, as do other Indo-European languages
    • however, the conjugations in English do not vary as much
  • conjugations work by changing the verb suffix or form to match subject case

>> to chart out comparison of Latin, Spanish, French and English cases << to do

auxiliary verb[edit | edit source]

  • also called "helping verb"
  • a verb that indicates the tense of another verb, as in
    • I am helping out
    • We had cleaned up beforehand

>> to complete entry

linking verb[edit | edit source]

  • "links" the subject to a complement and not to an object of the action
    • i.e., the verb does not indicate an action
  • some verbs can be either a state or an action,i.e, can be either a linking or action verb
    • "You smell bad" = linking verb
    • "I smell it" = action verb
  • linking verbs and passive voice << to do
  • linking verbs include:
    • to be, get, smell, taste << to do llist

how to tell the difference between linking and action verb[edit | edit source]

  • linking verbs indicate a state or description: "the playground is fun"
    • they do not indicate an action, as in "The park closed the playground"
    • however, what if we expressed that in the passive voice, "the playground is closed" ?
      • closed = simple past tense (past participle) of "to close"
      • clearly, the park "closed" the playground = an action

testing for linking v. action verb w/ a past participle / passive voice[edit | edit source]

  • test 1: can it take an adverb?
    • linking verbs do not support adverbs (modify the verb)
    • therefore, if verb can take an adverb it is not a linking verb:
      • "My bike was quickly stolen" = action verb, so "was" is an auxiliary and not a linking verb
  • test 2: condition or action?
    • if the past participle represents an action taken by the subject, then it is a action verb
      • "My bike is stolen" = the bicycle cannot steal itself, so "stolen" = past participle adjective here
  • test 3: passive voice
    • if the past participle represents an action imposed upon the subject we can see it as an action expressed in the passive voice:
      • "My bike was stolen by the punk" = "The punk stole my bike"
        • expresses an action upon and not a condition of the subject "bike"
  • conclusion:
    • the difference here between a linking and action verb with a past participle or in the passive voice is technical
    • although we can see it both ways, we can see how each interpretation forms a slightly different meaning
    • it would also seem that the tense of the linking verb matters:
      • "My bike was/ will be stolen" indicates an action whereas "My bike is stolen" indicates a state:
        • "My bike is painted red" = past participle adjective w/ linking verb "is"
        • "My bike is painted red" = the result of the act of being painted

modal verb[edit | edit source]

  • a form of auxiliary verb
  • indicates possibility, necessity, desirability, possibility, requirement:
    • can, could, had better, may, might, must, need, ought, shall, should, would
  • modal verbs add that conditionality to a finite (action) verb
    • I can do it, we should go there, you must go there, etc., vs.
    • I do it, we go there, you go there, etc
  • the modal verb is necessary for the semantic purpose (its meaning) of the sentence
    • whereas an auxiliary ("helping") verb is not
      • auxiliary verbs "mark" tense or passive voice
        • The teacher had taught (past perfect tense)
          • The subject was taught by the teacher (passive voice)
      • however, the modal verb must be accompanied by a finite (action) verb
        • i.e., modals cannot be the action of the sentence

>> Modal Verbs: Definition & Usage Examples | Grammarly Blog

attribution or reporting or signaling verb[edit | edit source]

  • reports or indicates from a source or a point of view
  • from:
    • attribution: from "to attribute" for "to give credit to"
    • reporting or signaling: indicating what someone believes or says
    • these verbs typically express:
      • a claim (argue, assert, believe, claim, emphasize, note, observe, remind, report)
      • agreement (accept, acknowledge, agree, concur, confirm, coroborate, maintain, recognize, support, verify)
      • disagreement (challenge, complain, complicate, contend, contradict, deny, qualify, question, reject, refute)
      • emphasis (emphasize, highlight, stress, underscore)
      • to examine (analyze, assess, compare, contrast, evaluate, examine, investigate, scrutinize, study)
      • to recommend (advise, advocate, call for, demand, encourage, exhort, implore, insist, recommend, suggest, urge, warn)
      • a proposition (hypothesize, intimate, suggest, speculate)
      • a belief (believe, express, feel, imagine, hope, profess, uphold)
      • a conclusion (conclude, discern, discover, find, summarizes
      • an explanation (articulate, clarify, define, explain, identify, illustrate)
  • verbs of attribution are transitive, thus require a direct object
    • thus take an object
      • can be a noun clause (as direct object
        • The teacher said grammar is important
        • or prepositional phrase (as adverb)
          • The teacher believes in grammar
    • if the verb has a simple direct object noun it is not acting as a reporting verb, just as an action verb:
      • The teacher emphasizes grammar
  • see

Other word forms[edit | edit source]

Discourse marker[edit | edit source]

  • a form of a "filler" word or phrase that functions to guide "discourse" or conversational flow
  • examples include:
    • and, basically, because, but, exactly, I mean, I'm not sure, in the end, like, look, now, oh well, or, so, uhh, wow, you know
  • discourse markers don't have a particular semantic function
  • instead, they help to advance or direct a conversation through
    • affirm or stress a statement or thought
      • exactly, wow
    • cognitive marker (demonstrating the processing of a thought)
      • I mean, oh, uh
    • connect or contrast an idea or topic
      • and, but
    • express causality or sequence
      • because, so, then, well
    • introduce or conclude a topic
      • now, oh well, then
    • reformulate or rephrase a discussion
      • basically, I mean
    • summarize
      • in the end, so
  • see :

Expletive[edit | edit source]

  • used as an intensifier, generally for emotional impact or expression
  • also known as "bad language", "curse words" or "profanity"
  • expetitive origin
    • from Latin explere for "to fill"

Filler word[edit | edit source]

  • like, uh
  • >> to do

Placeholder[edit | edit source]

  • used to reference something or someone without specifying it directly:
  • thingamagig, whatchamacallit, whatshisface

Parts of Speech resources[edit | edit source]

  • asdf

Parts of Speech lesson plans[edit | edit source]

  • asdf
  • asdf
  • asdf
  • asdf